Suttur, September 20, 2022: Lumpy skin disease among cows has spread widely among the livestock in several states of the country. As a result of this many cows are losing its lives. Farmers who are depending upon dairy farming are facing problems due to this.
The lumpy skin disease among cows first appeared in India in August 2019 in Orissa. It has spread to almost all the states now. This disease has appeared in Karnataka also from the last 3 years. However, this disease in our state was not fatal. But, several cows and oxen have lost its lives in states like Rajasthan, Gujarath, Maharasthra, etc., due to this disease. Farmers who are dependent on dairy farming are a worried lot as a result of this. However, if they try to know completely about the disease and take preventive measures and be a little careful they can prevent the livestock from the lumpy skin disease.
The lumpy skin disease is like Corona, which occurs through a virus. It belongs to the family of goat small pox family from the small pox virus. It is said that it has originated from Africa and has presently caused an alarm in Asia and Africa continents. This disease will spread from mosquitoes, wool, horse fly and other insects. The disease will also spread from from the disease affected livestock, its blood, saliva, fodder, water and infected areas.
Fever and lumps will appear on the body of the animals 7-8 days after they are infected. Other symptoms include staying away from fodder, chewing, low milk yield, discharge from eyes and nose, swollen lymph nodes and limping. The size of the lumps will increase day-by-day and later they burse and oozing of puss will apear. Abortion will also occur among a few cows.
About 5% to 40% of the livestock in a farm might get infected from this disease. As a result of this the farmers might incur financial burden for its treatment. Other losses that they may face is death of livestock, decrease in milk yield, abortions, stunt growth, etc.
The infected livestock should be separated from other animals as soon as this disease appears and it should be brought to the notice of the veternarian and other farmers. As it spreads through a virus treatment should be given based on the symptoms.
Infected cows/ oxen should be feeded with the mixture of 10 beetel leaves, 10 gm salt, 10 gm black pepper and 100 gm jaggery, three times in a day on the first day. From the second day, feeding of this mixture should be continued three times a day, till the lumps disappear.
A mixture of neem and tulasi leaves, 50 gm turmeric, 50 gm garlic and 500 ml neen oil should be applied on the lumps from which pus is oozing. It should be applied three times in a day.
This local home made medicine will reduce the impact of the disease upto certain extent. Hence, it is better to consult a veterinarian and continue the treatment.
Prevention and precautionary measures
- As informed earlier, separate the infected livestock from others
- Keep the infected cows/ oxen away from insects, mosquitoes and flies
- Don’t take them to the fairs or bring new cows/ oxen from the farm till the disease disappears
- Avoid visiting other farms and bring cows from otherh places or purchase
- Avoid allowing people who are in contact with other livestock, into the farm
- Keeping the stable clean will help in prevention of several insect diseases
- Use fans and mosquito nets in the stables
- Use neem leaves, incense smoke during evenings
- Use local methods like lakshman rekha, etc., temporarily to prevent trouble from flies
- Apply lime wash to the stable
- Use sanitizing methods like phenyle, bleaching powder, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate (washing soda), boric acid and potassium permanganate.
Prevention of insects, mosquitoes and flies
The Lumpy Skin disease main occurs through insects, mosquitoes and flies. Hence measures to prevent them is essential. You can follow any of the following methods for its prevention:
- Spray or wash the bodies of the livestock with medicine comprising 1.25% Deltamethrin once in 15 days.
- Apply spot-on medicine comprising Flumethrin or Amitraz on the body of the livestock once in two months.
- Provide Ivermectin medicine tablets/ syrup/ injections once in a week for three weeks as per the instructions of the veterinarian.
- Along with following any one of the above mentioned procedure, bathing the cows/ oxen with soaps having Permethrin content daily and spraying 1.25% Deltamethrin medicine in the stable, till the insects disappear will provide good results.
The Indian Council for Medical Research (ICMR), Barielly, in association with the National Horses Research Institute, Hissar has already developed a medicine named ‘Lumpy Provac Bharat Vaccine,’ which will be available in the market in the coming days. This vaccine is said to provide immunity against the lumpy skin disease among the livestock upto a minimum of one year.
In areas where the disease has spread widely, vaccine given to the sheep and goat pox is given, and it is said to be 60-70% effective.
Dairy farming provides food, economical progress and employment to many people in our country. Hence, the Govt. of India has already initiated several measures to prevent the disease. Along with it, if the farmers take measures to prevent insects, mosquitoes and flies and keep the stables clean, they can prevent the spread of lumpy skin disease.
Dr. Rakshit Raj U.M.
Subject Expert (Veterinary Sciences)
ICAR JSS Krishi Vigyan Kendra
Mob. No.: 9908441186